Umbra Winery


By in news-events Comments Off on Wines From Dry to Sweet (Chart)

Wines From Dry to Sweet (Chart)

Wines From Dry to Sweet (Chart)

We charted the sweetness in wine from bone-dry to richly sweet. Sweetness (and how we discuss it) is one of the most commonly misunderstood topics in wine, but with a little clarification you can taste and talk like a pro.

We’ll hopefully resolve any confusion for you around terminology, and then give you a look at actual sweetness levels of various wines. You might be surprised to notice that many sweet-tasting wines are less sweet than they seem and many dry-seeming wines are more sweet than you might realize.

Wine From Dry to Sweet


This chart identifies wines based on their sweetness level. You’ll note that occasionally a wine will not entirely fit within the bounds shown above because variations in production style.

Terms to Know
  • Residual Sugar (RS) This is the level of glucose and fructose (grape sugars) that are not converted into alcohol during fermentation. RS is most commonly measured in grams/liter.
  • Dry Dry = not sweet. The EU Commission Regulation has indicated that dry wines with moderate acidity may contain no more than 9 g/L of residual sugar, excepting when acid is over 7 g/L as well. The major exception to this is Champagne-style wines, which for some reason use the term “dry” for relatively sweet styles of wine. But hey, nobody ever said this wasn’t complicated…

Calories Added from Residual Sugar (RS)

We decided to crunch some numbers and found that even the sweetest dry wines (e.g. Apothic Red or Menage a Trois with about 15 g/L RS) add about 8.7 Calories/Carbs in the form of sugar.

So why do some dry wines taste so sweet?

Let’s say you buy a bottle of Dry Gewürztraminer, and the winemaker says it’s 100% dry. Yet, when you take it home and give it a taste, it tastes sweet! What’s going on?

The confusion around sweet and dry is caused by aromas, i.e. what our nose tells us about a wine. When you’re smelling aromas found in very ripe wines, like, for example, blackberry jam or banana yogurt, it’s because you’re used to associating these smells with actual sweet foods. Your brain links the aroma with its usual related taste sensation, outside of the context of wine, and so you say a wine is sweet, when you haven’t yet even taken a sip!

  • Pretty much all quality red table wine sold in the US is dry, with notable exception of very high bulk production wines that will often obscure any faults with a few (less than 10) grams of sugar, as well as mevushal wines, such as Manischewitz (estimated around 170 g/L RS!).
  • For white wines, pretty much only three regions in Europe traditionally make high quality off-dry or “harmoniously sweet” table wines: the Loire Valley (for Chenin Blanc), Pinot Gris, Riesling, Gewurtztraminer, and Muscat from Alsace in France, as well as much of the Riesling from Germany (although, there is also dry German Riesling).

Sweet Pinot Grigio from Italy? Nope. Sweet Sancerre from France? Nope. Sweet Albariño from Spain? Nope. Many European wine laws mandate that wines from a region be less than 4 grams per liter, thus making them dry by law.

If you dig around the US Federal Code of Regulations for wine labeling you’ll discover that there are no requirements or designations for dry wine in America. So instead, we derived the basic definition of sweetness and dryness (in the above chart) from the EU Commission Regulation with 2 slight modifications.

Our mouths are not that smart

A sidecar is a classic brandy-based cocktail with lemon
Acidity and bitterness reduce our perception of sweetness in wine.

Our perception of sweetness is affected based on structural components of a wine. Wines with elevated acidity and bitterness will mask the taste of sweetness. Think of it like lemonade. You don’t want to drink the highly acidic lemon juice on its own, but in the right balance with sugar you get tangy sweet-and-sour refreshment.

In fact, many dry acidic wines (such as dry German Riesling and dry Furmint from Hungary) permit proportionally higher residual sugars when the acidity is above a certain level, because they’ll still taste dry. By the way, the sweetness is almost always derived from leftover, natural grape sugars, rather than the addition of processed sugar (phew!).

IDEA: Add sugar to a glass of wine. Then, split contents into 2 separate glasses and add a squeeze of lemon to one glass and not the other. The wine with more acidity (the one with lemon) will taste less sweet.

You can learn to identify nearly undetectable sweetness in mostly dry wines. Just build a repertoire in your memory of wines you’ve tasted that you know to contain residual sugar. For example, almost all sparkling wine contains low, but perceptible, levels of sugar. “Brut” wines can be up to 12 g/L RS in most cases, but because of the super aggressive acid these wines often have, the sweetness presents more as mid-palate weight and texture, than the candy-like sense we usually think about with sweetness. In fact, sugar is added to sparkling wines on purpose because otherwise they’d be too tart and screechy for most people’s taste.

Why aren’t wines labeled with sweetness indications?

a-good-back-label wine clear lake cabernet shannon ridge Alcohol is a controlled substance (it’s not considered a food) which means that alcoholic beverages (wine, beer, spirits, etc) aren’t required to label nutritional information including sweetness. It does make it hard to identify a wine’s basic characteristics (e.g. how sweet is this wine? how acidic is this wine? how many calories per glass? etc). However, you’ll find that many quality wine producers do provide technical information about their wines online. All you need to do is learn how to read wine tech sheets to determine the sweetness level.

Wine Sweetness Chart by Wine Folly


Yes, wine has calories…

Alcohol has 7 calories per gram. Thus, wines with higher alcohol contain more calories. Find out exactly how many calories you’re drinking.

Calories in Wine

Wine Folly – Learn about wine.


via Wine Folly

April 14, 2016 at 03:30AM

By in umbra2ln Comments Off on 7 Spanish Wines (Other Than Tempranillo) Worth Drinking Right Now

7 Spanish Wines (Other Than Tempranillo) Worth Drinking Right Now

7 Spanish Wines (Other Than Tempranillo) Worth Drinking Right Now

If you’re mostly a “New World” wine drinker, but want to start exploring European wines, Spain presents a clear bridge into the old world. The sun-kissed Mediterranean climate that influences most of the country gives many of the wines a juicy, fruit-forward flavor profile, while also containing the significant savory flavors that European wines are famous for.

Despite the high-end wine industry’s attentiveness to France and Italy, Spain actually has more land devoted to vineyards than any other country in Europe. Spain is also quite mountainous, as well as being climactically and geographically dynamic, offering many different terroirs.
12x16 Spain wine map by Wine Folly
A multitude of the grapes popular in Spain are indigenous to the Iberian Peninsula and grow rarely elsewhere. Their esoteric nature robs them of global name recognition, but that can be to a savvy drinker’s advantage. A grape like Prieto Picudo may be delicious, but it doesn’t exactly have the same name recognition as Cabernet Sauvignon. The obscurity of these varieties means the wines rely on the quality of what’s inside of the bottle, rather than just having a “brand name” grape variety on the label. Value abounds in Spain.

Let’s take a look beyond Spain’s most popular wine (Rioja and Ribera del Duero’s Tempranillo) to several unsung varieties that are well worthy of your drinking budget. Keep reading to discover some of Spain’s best-kept secrets.

Brut Cava Illustration by Wine Folly


  • Style: Sparkling Wine
  • Expect to Spend: $16–$25+ (for the good stuff)
  • Regions of Interest: Penedès
  • Try it if you like: French Champagne, Crémant, American Sparkling, Prosecco

Spain’s answer to Champagne is made primarily with the Spanish indigenous grape Macabeo, along with some Parellada, Xarello and occasionally the originally-french Chardonnay. Cava offers serious-minded french Champagne-type bubbles at a fraction of the price. The really exceptional Cava wines can be found with the following classification system:

  • Reserva is aged for 15 months which by the way, is just as long as Non-Vintage Champagne (think Veuve Clicquot)
  • Gran Reserva is a special vintage-dated wine aged for a minimum of 30 months which is just 6 months less than vintage Champagne.

Albariño wine from Spain illustration by Wine Folly


  • Style: Light-Bodied White Wine
  • Expect to Spend: $18–$25 (for the good stuff)
  • Regions of Interest: Rias Baixas
  • Try it if you like: Sauvignon Blanc, Dry Riesling, Grüner Veltliner

The Atlantic ocean creates a cool-climate pocket in the northwestern side of Spain, which is where you’ll find the autonomía of Galicia and the Albariño wines of Rias Baixas (rhee-yus by-shus). Albariño at its best smells of tart-sweet citrus (meyer lemon, tangerine, lime zest) and underripe stone fruits (white peach and nectarine), contrasted with a briny, refreshing sea-spray savoriness.

Albariño producers often mature their wines “on the lees”, a process whereby after the fermentation is complete, the wines are aged on the inactive yeast cells; lees-aging adds texture to these wines, and often a “cheese rind” or “lager-like” aroma. In quality wines, the aromatic focus will remain on fruit with the lees aging contributing a particular, savory dimension to the wine.

Seek out the 2015 , 2012 , 2011 vintages

Godello Illustration by Wine Folly


  • Style: Medium-bodied white wine
  • Expect to Spend: $18–$30+ (for the good stuff)
  • Regions of Interest: Valdeorras, Bierzo
  • Try it if you like: (lightly-oaked) Chardonnay, dry Loire Valley Chenin Blanc

Godello is an unsung favorite of Spanish wine enthusiasts. Like Albariño, Godello from Spain is most often found in Galicia, particularly in the sub-region of Valdeorras. These granite-and-slate-based vineyards produce highly aromatic wines. You’ll discover the best Godello white wines flavors center around ripe yellow fruit aromas (meyer lemon, golden apple, yellow plum, and pineapple), and (especially if expensive) often undergo barrel-aging in new French oak, giving a spiced tone to the wines. In short, if you like more richly-styled, textural white wines, you need to get some Godello in your life, ahora.

Seek out the 2012 , 2011 , 2010 vintages



  • Style: Full-Bodied White Wine
  • Expect to Spend: $18–$30 (for the good stuff)
  • Regions of Interest: Rioja
  • Try it if you like: (richly-oaked) Chardonnay, Rhône whites, orange wine

Macabeo, the same grape found in Cava, gets a name change to Viura as the major grape of white Rioja. Traditionally fermented in (often American) oak barrels and frequently with many years of in-bottle maturation before release, white Rioja can be significantly oxidative (think hazelnut and almond flavors).

Dried yellow fruit aromas (dehydrated yellow pear, dried pineapple, and banana chip) are classic hallmarks of traditional white Rioja. These combine with a plethora of savory herbaceous (dill, coconut husk, white tea) , floral (dried white flower pot-pourri), and oak-derivative (cinnamon, cardamom, clove) flavors to create a heady, intense wine. The best Rioja Blanca wines tend to be almost entirely Viura with Malvasia and Garnacha Blanca potentially added to the mix to adjust and compliment the Viura’s natural nobility.

Seek out the 2012 , 2010 , 2009 vintages


Prieto Picudo

  • Style: Medium-Bodied Red Wine
  • Expect to Spend: $18–$30 (for the good stuff)
  • Regions of Interest: Castilla y Leon (Vino de la Tierra)

This oddity is a fascinating wine to try. Prieto Picudo is an indigenous grape of Castilla y Leon that must be declassified to the Vino de la Tierra IGP as a single-varietal wine because it isn’t allowed in the higher-tiered DO classification. Regardless of its lack of “official” prestige, well-made wines from Prieto Picudo offer sun-kissed black cherry notes, chocolate, dusty earth, and a spicy black pepper note that’s supported with the wines zippy acidity. Prieto Picudo wines are rather hard to find, and usually a fantastic value when you do.

Seek out the 2012 vintage

Garnacha illustration by Wine Folly


  • Style: Medium-Bodied Red Wine
  • Expect to Spend: $12–$16 (for decent daily drinkers)
    $30–$50 (for the good stuff)
  • Regions of Interest: Calatayud, Campo de Borja
  • Try it if you like: Zinfandel, California Pinot Noir, Cotes du Rhône

Many of us have come to adopt the French name, Grenache, for Garnacha even though the grape also has a long history in Spain. The Spanish version grows all over the country but Calatayud and Campo de Borja are regions you’ll often find on store shelves. You’ll note a stark contrast in tastes between the fresher, value-driven bottlings and the powerfully ripe, often oaky high-end wines.

The serious, riper Garnacha wines deliver deeper aromas of jammy black fruits (blackberry jam, boysenberry compote, brandied cherries) as well as oak-derivative aromas (woodsmoke and chocolate) as well as cracked black pepper aromas. They tend to be more on the full-bodied side, with softer tannins. The more affordable wines tend to play in the ripe red-fruit world (strawberry jam, candied ruby-red grapefruit, and red apple) and have more delicate red floral notes (hibiscus, rose). Depending on your preferences, both styles can be great.

Seek out 2014, 2013, 2012, 2009 and 2008 vintages

Monastrell wine bottle illustration by Wine Folly


  • Style: Full-Bodied Red Wine
  • Expect to Spend: $10–$17 (for decent daily drinkers)
    ($30–$50) for the good stuff
  • Regions of Interest: Jumilla, Alicante, Yecla
  • Try it if you like: Malbec, Cabernet, or Shiraz

Monastrell (a.k.a. Mourvèdre, a.k.a. Mataro) produces inky red wines with tons of dried black and red fruits (chocolate covered cherries, black plum jam, blueberry syrup, and mulberry purée). Most Monastrell is grown in the hot, south-eastern Mediterranean-influenced autonomías of Valencia and Murcia.

The most serious examples of these wines can be absolutely enormous in the glass, and oak aging is not uncommon. On the high end, Monastrell wines add much more nuanced, savory (mostly herbal and meaty) aromas to their whack of huge fruit.

Seek out the 2012, 2011 and 2010 vintages


Vintage Notes

Do to the warmer climate in Spain, vintages tend to be more consistent. That said, there are some particulars to understanding how the vintage affected the wine:

  1. 2015 – Excellent
  2. 2014 – Good: Many regions had rains at the end of harvest may have caused problems for late-ripening varieties
  3. 2013 – Average to Good – not particularly great for white wines
  4. 2012 – Great: Reds have higher tannin
  5. 2011 – Good: Reds have higher tannin
  6. 2010 – Excellent: Reds with higher tannin
  7. 2009 – Excellent: Reds with higher tannin
  8. 2008 – Great: Drinking well right now
  9. 2007 – Great: Drinking well right now

12x16 Spain wine map by Wine Folly

Explore Spanish Wine Regions

Learn about different Spanish wines with a map of Spain’s many regions.

Spanish Wine Map

Wine Folly – Learn about wine.


via Wine Folly

April 21, 2016 at 03:18AM

By in news-events Comments Off on Restaurant Wine Lists: Are Restaurants Leaving Money on the Table?

Restaurant Wine Lists: Are Restaurants Leaving Money on the Table?

Restaurant Wine Lists: Are Restaurants Leaving Money on the Table?

wine-list-waiterLast week I wrote about the concept of the Overton Window and speculated about what it might be able to tell us about the constantly evolving wine market. This week I follow up with an interesting study that finds a kind of “Overton” effect in restaurant wine programs and suggests that many restaurants may be leaving money on the table by the way they bind themselves to a particular narrow wine “window.”

The Backstory

Briefly, the Overton Window is a concept taken from the world of political analysis. It refers to the range of public policy options that are deemed generally acceptable at any particular moment. Political success, according to this theory, is all about either embracing the window to gain public support or finding ways to shift it in the direction you favor.

Financial Times columnist Tim Hayward applied the Overton Window concept to restaurant food. He noted that many creative chefs find themselves constrained by the customer Overton Window and the need to have “safety food” options like hamburgers, simple fish and chicken dishes, etc. so that customers feel comfortable coming to the restaurant.

If you choose to ignore the window conventions, you risk losing customers and ultimately your job. Hayward speculated that the most successful chefs stick to the window, but work on the edges to express creativity without leaving their customers behind.

I had more to say about this, of course,  including some comments about giant hairballs, so you might want to read last week’s column if you haven’t already done so.wine_beer

Wine Versus Beer and Spirits

The Overton Window is a new concept for me, but learning about it instantly reminded me of research that my friend James Davis did for his Master of Wine thesis, “Understanding consumer attitudes to large wine-brands as a purchasing cue in the United Kingdom (UK) multiple on-trade: a comparison of value and premium multiple outlets.”

The thesis is suitably complicated and probes many questions. I am going to simply (and probably over-simplify) and focus on just a couple of the results.

Davis wanted to understand the difference between wine programs in value restaurant chains (such  as Wetherspoon’s and Harvester  in the UK) and premium restaurant chains (such as Wagamama and Carluccio’s) and while he did not use the concept of the Overton Window, I think you will probably see why I think it applies.

Davis noted that when it comes to popular brands of beer and spirits, consumers expect to find them in both value and premium restaurants. The beer and spirits lists of the two types of restaurants aren’t identical by any means, but popular brands that are available in the shops are likely to be found in both types of establishments. This is consistent with the concept of staying within the consumer comfort and acceptance window.

Davis noted that the conventional wisdom is that wine is different from beer and spirits when it comes to popular brands. Widely-distributed wines like Hardy’s and Jacob’s Creek are likely to be found in the value outlets, but are not typically found in the premium segment. In other words, the restaurant wine windows are assumed to be much different. His research of the chains’ wine lists generally confirmed this finding, indicating that the restaurants treated wine a bit different from beer and spirits in terms of the types and range of brands on offer.

So, if you are following me so far, it seems that restaurants may be using their wine lists to communicate their identities (as value versus premium) more than they do with beer and spirits. Interesting, but is wine really so different from beer, spirits and food? Are the value and premium wine windows so very different?survey-says

And the Survey Says …

Davis then surveyed consumers and he found that many of them would have ordered wine at the premium restaurants if there had been a popular brand on the list. In other words, the windows in the two types of establishments may not be so distinct as conventional wisdom suggest.

Perhaps restaurant wine should be a little more like restaurant beer and spirits  and not try to create its own special window?  To quote from Davis’s thesis: “Premium outlets that do not list any large wine-brands are missing out on sales according to the findings of the consumer survey and also the wine-list review.”

This seems to me to be consistent with Tim Hayward’s hypothesis about restaurant food. Consumers want those safety options and you ignore them at your peril. Given that a widely available “safety wines” might be pretty popular (think Kim Crawford Marlborough Sauvignon Blanc, for example, or Mondavi Napa Fume Blanc) I am not sure about the logic of avoiding them entirely, even if you want to construct a list that probes the creative boundaries or defines an image.

How Different is Wine?

As I said before, Davis explores more topics and provides more analysis, but this is where I will stop. My purpose is simple: maybe we should re-examine what we think we know about what works best for restaurant wine.

I’m not recommending that fine dining establishments limit their wine lists to what a consumer can find a Kroger’s or Tesco, just suggesting that broadening the list to include more popular (and probably cheaper) wines that fall squarely within the generally accepted wine window might improve wine sales while making customers happy, too.

If a restaurant is willing to offer a gourmet hamburger to give nervous customers something to hold on to, maybe there should be more similar wine choices available. Many do this, of course, but sometimes it seems like all the attention is on other parts of the wine list.

I have written many case studies of different industries over the years and one thing I have found is that each sector confidently  believes that it is different from the rest. And of course important differences do exist. But it is wise not to ignore potential lessons from other product categories, especially when consumers see them as part of the same experience as they are likely to consider restaurant food and beverage choices.


A quick note about limitations. Davis’s study is obviously limited to those value and premium dining multiples that he studied in the UK and the consumers he surveyed there. Use caution in generalizing to other countries and other types of dining establishments.

Also please note (as if it isn’t obvious) that my concern here is increasing wine sales and the restaurants may be more interested in other things. Perhaps there is more profit (or faster table turnover) with beer or cocktail sales.


via The Wine Economist

April 18, 2016 at 09:05PM

By in news-events Comments Off on Grapevine, TX Layover Packages

Grapevine, TX Layover Packages

Whether you are flying on business or traveling with your family, use your layover to experience Historic Downtown Grapevine with unique shopping and dining options. You can plan an entire getaway around Grapevine’s Urban Wine Trail, including visits to one of the six participating wine tasting rooms. Please click on the button below to download a PDF with all the details.

Wine & Dine Package


By in news-events Comments Off on A Tuscan Adventure Exclusive

A Tuscan Adventure Exclusive


Have you long dreamed of exploring the Italian countryside, lined with majestic Italian cypress, sipping on a glass of chianti at one of the oldest wineries in Italy? Or how about learning to cook an Italian specialty after truffle hunting, as you gaze out over the acres of olive groves? Does a stroll along the century old cobblestones of Cortona or Ponte Vecchio with a delicious gelato in hand, ducking into local
shops to peruse the wares of local artisans sound like a movie where YOU play the leading role?

Well, dream no longer.

Umbra Winery is thrilled to offer you such an experience. We have partnered with a local tour company to create an itinerary that will leave you longing to return to La Dolce Vita again and again.

Download the Flyer!

For more details, please contact: Debbie Ray-Wilson, or call 817-421-2999


  • 6 nights accommodation in Superior Double Bedroom with separate bathroom, mini bar, air conditioning, Satellite TV
  • All Breakfasts
  • Transportation in a comfortable mini bus with air- conditioning / including arrival & departure from Florence
  • Expert English Speaking Tour Leaders
  • 5 guided excursions to Tuscan Towns
  • Food Lovers Tour of Florence with expert guide, several food samplings
  • One hands on cooking class
  • 5 lunches – wine not included unless specified
  • All Dinners – wine not included unless specified
  • Winery tour admittance and tasting


To ensure a unique and intimate experience, this event is limited to 20 persons and is initially exclusive to Umbra Wine Club members at a preferred price. In the event spaces remain available, we will open registration to non-wine club members.
$2700 Euro per person double occupancy
$3100 Euro per person single occupancy
*There is a 250 Euro convenience fee for Non-Wine Club registrants

Our tour includes accommodations at Villa La Palagina, located in the heart of Chianti. A converted monastery, this villa will transport you back in time to the era of the Renaissance, but with all the modern comforts of satellite TV and air conditioning. Breathtaking views of the Italian countryside, you’ll
awake daily pinching yourself to make sure you are not dreaming!

Adventure Highlights

Visit a state of the art Wine Estate where you will enjoy a guided tour of the Architectural Masterpiece. The owners are the Antinori Family a
Florentine Nobile family who have been in the wine business for over 26 generations! Continue to a local winery in Chianti where we you will enjoy
lunch and incredible views of Chianti followed by shopping in the ancient town of San Giamignano for pottery, linens and more!

A Truffle Hunt in the charming hill town of San Miniato. Enjoy a pleasant walk together with Massimo and his truffle dogs and learn about this unique delicacy. After the truffle hunt arrive at a local restaurant where Massimo will show you how to prepare the truffles for your delicious lunch. After, we visit a biodynamic olive oil farm for a tour and tasting the old fashioned way. Then we make our way for dinner in the Chianti Pisani area called “Carmignano”. Carmignano is a red wine that includes grape varietals Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese.

Florence Food Lovers Tour. Learn about the history of Florence’s local and regional cuisines while exploring the city’s small alleyways and walking through charming local suburbs. We’ll enjoy tastings at local merchants of biscotti, aged balsamic vinegar, olive oil, and a local delicatessen. You will have the afternoon free to shop and sight see. Enjoy dinner in the city center before returning to your accommodations.

2016 Tuscan Trip Bro CA Cooking Class & Dining at the kitchen on the estate where youwill  meet your chef for a hands on cooking class followed by lunch. Enjoy time by the
pool or reading in the garden. We’ll then cap the day off with a memorable dinner at Dario Cecchinis restaurant, the famous butcher of Panzano.

Cortona and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano. Visit the picture perfect hill town of Cortona. Meet for lunch at a charming local restaurant in the town center. In the afternoon we will visit an exclusive boutique wine estate, by far one of the most beautiful in the area, for a tour and tasting. Visit the cellars and the most prestigious production of Vin Santo and Occhio di Pernice in Tuscany aged for a minimum of 20 years. After a tasting, we’ll return to the estate for a farewell dinner with your newly made friends. And we’ll warn you – it isn’t uncommon for tears to flow reminiscing of how this trip has truly been the trip of a lifetime.

*Sequence and content of itinerary subject to change based on availability, weather, etc.

By in news-events Comments Off on A Tasting Room of Wine and Meatballs

A Tasting Room of Wine and Meatballs

Up your fruit intake at Umbra Winery, a new wine bar and tasting room from the same-named Texas vino makers, soft-open now and grand-opening Sunday in downtown Grapevine.

This place is part of Grapevine’s urban wine trail, so you can make a day of it or swing through as part of a broader mission to sample as many local wines as you can. Either way, you’ll find a hospitable situation here of brick walls, wooden barrels and a brightly colored bar.

Read more:

By in news-events Comments Off on A couple’s dream comes to life with new wine tasting room

A couple’s dream comes to life with new wine tasting room

John and Debbie Wilson fell in love at a wine tasting event in Irving in 2010.

Their courtship involved their shared affinity for vino with visits to Sonoma and Napa Valley, both in California. Their June 15, 2012, marriage was followed by a honeymoon in Italy, known for its vineyards, and a place where they reveled in their love with La Dolce Vita. or the sweet life.

Both had corporate jobs, his as a chemical engineer in East Texas. His commute took up valuable time away from their time together in their home in Prosper home, north of Dallas.